The transition to the fifth generation of mobile networks (5G) is often portrayed as a race – between economic systems and between companies. Who defines the standards? Which company holds critical standard-essential patents? Which nation has the most pilots to test equipment and applications? Who is the fastest to roll out the infrastructure? What are new business models? The race for 5G is truly multi-dimensional, highly complex and fast-moving. Yet, recently the debate has been dominated by one single question: does the deployment of Chinese 5G network equipment pose a threat to the national security of western countries?