Chainspace: A Sharded Smart Contracts Platform

Thanks to their resilience, integrity, and transparency properties, blockchains have gained much traction recently, with applications ranging from banking and energy sector to legal contracts and healthcare. Blockchains initially received attention as Bitcoin’s underlying technology. But for all its success as a popular cryptocurrency, Bitcoin suffers from scalability issues: with a current block size of 1MB and 10 minute inter-block interval, its throughput is capped at about 7 transactions per second, and a client that creates a transaction has to wait for about 10 minutes to confirm that it has been added to the blockchain. This is several orders of magnitude slower that what mainstream payment processing companies like Visa currently offer: transactions are confirmed within a few seconds, and have ahigh throughput of 2,000 transactions per second on average, peaking up to 56,000 transactions per second. A reparametrization of Bitcoin can somewhat assuage these issues, increasing throughput to to 27 transactions per second and 12 second latency. Smart contract platforms, such as Ethereum inherit those scalability limitations. More significant improvements, however, call for a fundamental redesign of the blockchain paradigm.

The Chainspace project is developed, and funded, in the context of the EU H2020 Decode project, the EPSRC Glass Houses project and the Alan Turing Institute.