"For large-scale automobile makers, smart metering initiatives, central governments, and consumer electronics companies and maybe even cities a move towards becoming wholesale customers, may overcome some drawbacks evident with current market structures. The reasons why this has not happened yet are in part because MNOs have not felt compelled by competition or opportunities for growth to offer such services. For some operators it may seem that such a development would mean that they lose control of the customer and are reduced to a radio access network operator. In addition, because such an option is not offered, it may not occur to M2M-users that it is possible. It could be that the notion is a “paradigm shift”, for some participants in the market, with smart metering initiatives being at the forefront of acceptance of these ideas. Another important reason why this type of development is not pursued may be because regulators have not made access available to the necessary numbering resources. This could include IMSI-numbers, but also telephone numbers and possible other numbers."OECD (2012), “Machine-to-Machine Communications: Connecting Billions of Devices”, OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 192, OECD Publishing.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k9gsh2gp043-enOn:Smart cities"Though there is not a formal definition of what a “Smart City” entails, the use of M2M features prominently in many examples given of it. The goal of M2M, in a smart city, is to provide citizens and managers of the city, information on and control of the city. Examples are:• Sensing where traffic is, and adapting traffic lights to it• Parking spots: sensing if they are occupied and transmitting this information to motorists• Garbage containers sensing whether they are full• Green areas in a town equipped with water sensors to regulate irrigation equipment• LCD street lighting that can adapt intensity when someone walks or drives by.• Sensors that measure air quality, vibration or noise. The data can be fed into environmental measurements or used to direct police to a disturbance• Bicycle sharing projectsSometimes these developments are combined. Street lights can be a platform that hosts cameras, sensors that measure air quality and antennas to receive information via WPAN from sensors embedded in the streets and rubbish bins and relay these onward via fibre or 2G/3G/4G."